Organovo Holdings, Inc., an early commercial stage company, focuses on developing and commercializing functional human tissues that could be employed in drug discovery and development, biological research, and as therapeutic implants for the treatment of damaged or degenerating tissues and organs. It is developing a suite of standardized and three-dimensional human tissues for the preclinical assessment of drug effects, including applications in predictive toxicology, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics; customized human tissues as living, dynamic models of human biology or disease for use in drug discovery and development; and three-dimensional human tissues for clinical applications, such as blood vessels for bypass grafting, nerve grafts for nerve damage repair, and functional tissue patches for the repair or replacement of damaged tissues and organs. The company has a collaboration agreement with Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. (Merck). that provides Merck access to the company’s commercial exVive3D human liver tissue service, as well as to develop multiple custom tissue models. Organovo Holdings, Inc. was founded in 2007 and is based in San Diego, California.